JoAnna Klein, The New York Times
Published: 2020-05-20 00:31:16 BdST
Chicken is America’s most popular meat. But undercooked chicken, when contaminated, is also a leading source of food-borne illness. So how do you avoid giving yourself and your isolation-mates food poisoning?
Many people, including Solveig Langsrud, a scientist at the Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, assume chicken follows a simple rule-of-thumb: Pink chicken turned white means “done.” It’s similar to how we cook other meats.
“Consumers can see that if you have a hamburger, and it turns from red to brown, it’s approximately around the temperature where the meat becomes safe,” Langsrud said.
But was this true? Did it line up with temperature recommendations?
As scientific literature offered no clear answer to her questions, Langsrud and her colleagues have identified common problems with recommendations and practices for cooking chicken safely at home. In a study published last month in PLOS ONE, they showed that home cooks often follow intuition and colour, disregarding temperature recommendations. Intuition and colour sometimes aren’t enough to ensure safety. These can be alleviated with a few expert tips.
To study how cooks at home follow safety recommendations, researchers filmed 75 households in five European countries. From a random but non-representative sample, they also conducted an online survey of nearly 4,000 households in the same countries that say they cook chicken.
Worried that chicken would dry out, most home cooks determined doneness by colour and texture inside the meat, they found. Few bothered with thermometers, claiming they took too much time, were too complicated to use, didn’t fit in the chicken or weren’t necessary (although easy-to-use thermometers are inexpensive and widely available).
In additional lab experiments, the scientists injected raw chicken breast fillets with a cocktail of campylobacter and salmonella. These bacteria are common contaminants of chicken and cause millions of sicknesses, thousands of hospitalisations and hundreds of deaths each year in the United States. They cooked the breasts on a commercial grill plate until they reached core temperatures ranging from 122 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit (the World Health Organisation’s minimum temperature for safe chicken), and they discovered something surprising.
At 158 degrees, but not lower, bacteria inside the chickens’ cores was reduced to safe levels, and when cut open its flesh appeared dull and fibrous, not glossy like raw chicken. But meat began changing from pink to white far below this threshold, and most colour change occurred below 131 degrees Fahrenheit. Sometimes, the chicken’s core would be safely cooked, but unsafe levels of bacteria still lingered on surfaces that hadn’t touched the grill plate.
Many people think chicken is safe before it is, Langsrud said. Her advice?
You can check the core for fading pinkness, dulling glossiness and more apparent fibres, all signs of degrading proteins and cooking meat. But those alone won’t bring you safety.
The temperature of a whole roasted chicken is checked with a meat thermometer in El Cerrito, Calif, Sept 1, 2015. Chicken breasts turn from pink to white before reaching a temperature of 131 degrees, but aren’t considered safe until 158 degrees. The New York Times
Use it to “follow the temperature,” he said, by measuring often. Temperature still increases in the meat’s core after it is removed from a heat source. Depending on thickness, a chicken breast’s core temperature, for example, may increase 41 degrees Fahrenheit in the 10 minutes after it is removed from heat.
The US Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service’s guidelines for cooking chicken at home suggest a minimum core temperature of 165 degrees Fahrenheit. But using the same recommended temperature for legs and breasts can result in Thanksgiving turkey effect — dry breast and juicy drumsticks — because white meat cooks at lower temperatures than dark.
Americans still should respect these guidelines, Goussault said, but that doesn’t mean we must settle for dry chicken. He prefers a sous-vide method that involves vacuum sealing and cooking in a water bath at exact temperatures to consistently arrive at beautiful, juicy and pathogen-free chicken. But you don’t need to be a sous-vide master.
Try buying and cooking breasts and legs separately, Goussault said. Bring the breast’s core to 165 degrees Fahrenheit, he said, and the leg to between 168.8 and 172.4 Fahrenheit.
And remember: Chicken surfaces need love, too. Unless the inside of a chicken was contaminated during processing, the outside is where you’ll find most bacteria. Boiling it, or searing it uniformly, will ensure heat kills all surface bacteria.
If you really want to safely gauge temperature for a whole chicken, insert a pop-up thermometer into the thickest part of the thigh before roasting it, Goussault suggests. By the time the probe pops, the breasts will have long cooked. They will likely be dry and far from his standards of culinary perfection. But you’ll be sure to, as Goussault says in French, “dormir sur ses deux oreilles,” or, figuratively, “sleep peacefully.”
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